First, the statement

A piece of jade carving in the Palace Museum in Beijing, the largest jade in the history of the jade (Hetian jade), so that the soft jade produced in Xinjiang Hetian suddenly sounds at home and abroad.

"Dayu Zhishui Tushanzi (jing)" is a jade in nephrite. The jade was transported to Yangzhou in 1781 (dry dragon forty-six years), and in 1787 (dry dragon fifty-two years) jade carving was returned to Beijing. It lasted for six years, and it was placed in the Le Shoutang of the Forbidden City. It weighed 5330Kg. The jade material was collected in the mountainous area of ​​Yer's Mir. The jade carving picture was vivid and magnificent. It was conceived in the Song Dynasty "Dayu Water Control Map", presenting "Zhu Lirufeng" The mountains are stacked, the waterfalls are rushing, the ancient trees are covered with pines, the caves are gully, the hordes of migrant workers are on the cliffs, the hammers are hammered, the gravel is gravel, and the mountains are opened with simple meteorites. 224mm, width 96mm, the Emperor Ganlong wrote a poem on the back of the jade carving mountain view: "The merits of the ancient dynasty, the ancients, for the fish who Fuching looked up. The paintings are old or annihilated, and the heavy equipment is difficult to destroy." and also.

China is the earliest country in the development of jade culture. Archaeological evidence confirms that Hetian jade has been used by the ancestors in the Neolithic Age, far before the jade.

Chinese soft jade ornaments and jade articles have been reported as the characteristics of the era of forensic era, such as the dynasty, 璋, 璧, 琮 of the Shang Dynasty, the jade, the rituals of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the jade of the Qin Dynasty, and the jade robes of the Han Dynasty. The jade lotus in the Tang Dynasty, the jade Guanyin in the Song Dynasty, and the great jade sea in the Yuan Dynasty (hidden in the Yuxi Pavilion of the Beihai Mission City in Beijing, 66 cm high and 150 cm in diameter, is a piece of jade-carved wineware). The jade in the Ming Dynasty, the water in the Qing Dynasty, and so on.

Second, the geological output characteristics of nephrite

In the area of ​​Kunlun Mountain-Altun Mountain on the southern margin of the Tarim Basin, from Yecheng to the end of the river, from the west to the east, the soft jade veins are intermittently distributed over a thousand kilometers, including the soft jade of Hetian and the Karakash River and the Yulong Kashi River. Famous, and widely circulated with the name "Hetian jade".

The soft jade is produced in the Kunlun trough fold uplift belt, which is in the northwest-east-north-north arc direction. It is a medium-acid rock strain, a diagenetic intrusive diorite, a quartz diorite, a granitic diorite and The gneissic granite and syenite are the products of contact metamorphism with dolomite marble and dolomitic calcite marble in the Precambrian metamorphic rocks.

During the contact metamorphism of dolomite marble and dolomitic calcite marble, the contact metamorphic belt successively forms the stellite spinel quenched pyroxenite, diopside rock, forsterite dolomite marble, and tremolite dolomite. Marble and soft jade, the formation of nephrite is accompanied by medium-low temperature hydrothermal alteration, such as serpentine, hydrous petrochemical, chlorite, shale petrochemical, silicification, and petrochemical alteration.

Third, nephrite minerals and rocks

1, mineral combination

The main mineral: tremolite - positive stone.

Secondary minerals: serpentine, oblique zoisite, diopside, chlorite, apatite, graphite, calcite, vermiculite, chrome spinel, pyrrhotite, calcium chrome, magnetite , talc, limonite.

2. Tremolite Tremolite - Actinolite parameters

1), allusions: Tremolite is named after the discovery of the "Тремолит" valley, the Yangshi stone originated from the Greek word ray актес, stone литос, also known as the light stone.

2), nephrite: tremolite Tremolite (Ca2Mg5[Si2O11]2[OH]2) - actinolite (Ferroactinolite) (Ca2(Mg,Fe)5[Si2O11]2[OH]2 ), Mg-Fe is a complete analogy of the same image. According to "Курс Минералогии Госгеолиздат" А.Г.Бетехтин literature, nephrite (Nephrite, Нефрит, Жад) consists of tremolite-positive stone, which is microscopic crystalline needle, fibrous, radial aggregate or felt-like collection. Body, dense, extremely tough block.

3) physical parameters


Color: white, gray. Photometric: Two-axis crystal negative light, 2V=85-90° Optical orientation: C∧Ng=14°-18°b∥Nm, a∧Np=5°, dispersion γ
Yang Shishi

Color: green, light green. Photometric: Two-axis crystal negative light, 2V=75-88° Optical orientation: C∧Ng=10°-20°b∥Nm, a∧Np=5°, dispersion γ
4), chemical parameters

Molecular formula: Ca2Mg5 [SiO2]2[OH]2

Theoretical value (%) of tremolite chemical composition: SiO2 58.8, MgO 24.6, CaO 13.8, H2O 2.8.

Chemical composition (%) of lanolin jade: SiO256.08, TiO2 0.00, Al2O3 0.79, Fe2O3 0.50, FeO 0.78, MnO 0.07, MgO 24.82, CaO 13.23, Na2O 0.21, K2O 0.10, P2O50.03, SO30.16, CO20. 56, the loss of ignition is 3.02. (Place of Kunlun Mountain)

Baiyu chemical composition (%): SiO256.15, TiO2 0.08, Al2O3 1.02, Fe2O3 0.62, FeO 0.78, MnO 0.18, MgO 24.08, CaO 13.23, Na2O 0.21, K2O 0.10, P2O50.08, SO30.11, CO21.20, The loss of ignition is 3.22. (Place of Kunlun Mountain)

Sapphire chemical composition (%): SiO253.34, TiO2 0.08, Al2O3 3.54, Fe2O3 1.28, FeO 1.84, MnO 0.18, MgO 21.78, CaO 12.73, Na2O 0.23, K2O 0.23, P2O50.08, SO30.11, CO21.20, The loss of ignition is 4.02. (Place of Kunlun Mountain)

Qingbai jade chemical composition (%): SiO257.60, TiO20.23, Al2O3 0.94, Fe2O3 0.04, FeO 0.85, MnO 0.06, MgO 24.37, CaO 12.62, Na2O 0.20, K2O 0.22, H2O+1.76, SO30.14, CO20. 42, the loss of burning 4.02. (Place of Kunlun Mountain)

Ingredients (%): SiO254.75, TiO2 0.00, Al2O3 1.34, Fe2O3 0.14, FeO 3.92, MnO 0.04, MgO 24.08, CaO 12.84, Na2O 0.23, K2O 0.10, P2O50.06, SO30.23, CO21.43 The loss of ignition is 1.86. (Place of Kunlun Mountain)

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